Tramadol

Tramadol- Popular brands, Uses, and Pharmacology

Tramadol is a synthetic opioid analgesic that is centrally acting. Tramadol is a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). It is structurally related to morphine and codeine. Tramadol is a lower-risk opioid analgesic for the treatment of moderate to severe pain.

ParametersDescription
Category of DrugTramadol is an Opioid Analgesics
Mechanism of ActionTramadol is a selective agonist of mu receptors (1). It preferentially inhibits serotonin reuptake, whereas tramadol mainly inhibits noradrenaline reuptake. The action of these two enantiomers is both complementary and synergistic and results in the analgesic effect.
Indications Tramadol is used for
1. Moderate or severe pain
2. Postoperative pain,
3. In patients contraindicated to NSAIDs.
Well Known
Pharmaceutical Brands
1. CONTRAMAL- ABBOTT
2. TRD-CONTIN- MODI MUNDI PHARMA
3. TRAMAZAC- ZYDUS CADILA
4. TRAMASURE- MANKIND
5. DOMADOL- TORRENT
Buy TRAMAZAC P TABLET - Apollo Pharmacy.
Available dosage forms1. TABLETS
2. CAPSULES
3. INJECTION
DoseAdult- Moderate to severe pain: 50 to 100 mg, 4 to 6 hourly (max 400 mg/day)
Structure Thumb
Molecular details Molecular Formula- C16H25NO2
Molecular Weight- 263.37 g/mol
IUPAC Name(1R,2R)-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexan-1-ol
Pharmacokinetic properties 1. oral dose of 100mg produces Cmax- 300μg/L with a Tmax-1.6-1.9 hours
2. Vd- 2.6-2.9 L/kg
3. Protein binding-About 20% 
4. Approximately 30%- excreted in the urine as unchanged drug,
5. 60% -excreted as metabolites
6. half-life- 5-6 hours 
Contraindications1. Patients with suicidal tendency
2. Raised intracranial pressure
3. Severe renal impairment
4. Acute alcoholism
5. Lactation.
Precautions1. Renal or hepatic impairment
2. History of epilepsy
3. Inflammatory or obstructive bowel disease
4. Myasthenia gravis
5. Hypothyroidism
6. Adreno-cortical insufficiency
7. Respiratory depression
8. Prostatic hyperplasia
9. pregnancy
Adverse Effects Same as other opioids, however, it has less addictive potential.
Pregnancy Category C

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