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Pharmaceutical Chemistry-II

Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Physicochemical Properties

Proflavine: Physicochemical Properties

NameProflavine: Antiseptics and Disinfectant
Nomenclature3-6-ACRIDINEDIAMINE
3,6-Diaminoacridine
IUPAC NameAcridine-3,6-Diamine
Chemical Structureproflavin
UsesAnti-infective
Topical antiseptic
Disinfect
Bacterio-static (stops the further growth of reproducing bacteria)
Proflavine inhibits vaccine viral synthesis
Physical propertiesPhysical state and appearance – Solid orange to red powder
Melting point- 285 °C
Boiling point- 507 °C at 760mmHg
Solubility- mostly Soluble in polar solvent such as ethanol, water. Insoluble in non-polar solvent (Benzene ether)  
Chemical propertiesMolecular weight – 209.25 g/mol
Molecular formula – C13 H11N3  
Stability and storage conditionStore at cold condition i.e. 4 to 8 °C
Light sensitive and hydroscopic
Proflavine is stable for 1 year under cold conditions
Brand nameBayer Pessaries MolcaSepticide

Benzalkonium chloride: Physicochemical Properties

NameBenzalkonium chloride : Antiseptics and Disinfectant
NomenclatureADBAC 
Alkyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride 
N-Alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride 
Alkyldimethyl(phenylmethyl)quaternary ammonium chlorides 
Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride 
Chemical Structure
Structure of Benzalkonium chloride. C 12 , C 14 and C 16 ...
UsesSurfactant
Antibacterial agents (bactericide- kill the microorganism)
Preservatives
Antiseptic
Detergent
Physical propertiesColourless or yellowish powder
Melting point- 29-34 °C
Solubility- freely soluble in water at 20°C
Chemical propertiesMolecular formula – C9 H13ClNR (R= C8H17 to C18H37) Molecular weight – 372.028g/mol (C22 H42ClNO)
Class of quaternary ammonium compounds
It having different lengths of alkyl group vary C8 to C18. For the maximum bactericidal activity found in C12 – C14 alkyl group
Stability and storage conditionStore at room temperatureKept in tightly closed container
Brand nameAlfa Drops
CFC(ointment)
Ciplox D
Hyamine 3500
Antibacterial soap

Phenol: Physicochemical Properties

NamePhenol  : Antiseptics and Disinfectant
NomenclatureBenzenol
Carbolic acid
Hydroxybenzene
Phenic acid
Phenyl hydroxide
Oxybenzene
Chemical StructurePhenol
UsesAntiseptic
Detergent
Oral analgesic
Physical propertiesWhite crystalline powder or solution.
Solution can be white to slight pink color
It has a distinct aromatic phenolic odor
Melting point- 40 – 42 °C
Boiling point- 182 °C
Solubility- slightly soluble in water; freely soluble in chloroform, ether, glycerol, and fixed oil
Chemical propertiesMolecular formula – C6 H6O or  C6 H5OH 
Molecular weight –  94.11 g/mol  
Stability and storage conditionStore at dry, cool place  
Brand nameBlistex
Chloraseptic
Phenyle  

Cetrimide: Physicochemical Properties

NameCetrimide: Antiseptics and Disinfectant
NomenclatureMyristyltrimethylammonium bromide
Tetraadonium bromide
TTAB
MITMAB
Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide
Chemical StructureChemical structure of cetrimide  
UsesAntiseptic
Disinfectant
Physical propertiesColourless crystalline powder
Melting point- 245-250 °C
Solubility- slightly soluble in water
Chemical propertiesMolecular formula – C17 H38BrN
Molecular weight – 336.4 g/mol  
Stability and storage conditionHygroscopic
Incompatible with oxidizing agents
Store at cool temperature
Stable under normal condition
Brand nameCetavlon
Sacbrace
Scabus
Hexiwil-C
Ketona

Chloroxylenol: Physicochemical Properties

NameChloroxylenol: Antiseptics and Disinfectant
Nomenclaturep-chloro-3,5-xylenol2-chloro-m-xylenol2-chloro-5-hydroxy-m-xylene
Chemical StructureChloroxylenol.png
UsesAntiseptic
Disinfectant
Antimicrobial
Physical propertiesPhenolic odor
Boiling point- 246 °C
Melting point- 112-116 °C
Solubility-  soluble in ethanol;
slightly soluble in pet ether and benzene
Chemical propertiesMolecular formula – C8 H9ClO
Molecular weight – 156.61 g/mol  
Stability and storage conditionStore at room temperature
It stable when exposed to sunlight and humidity
It also stable at higher temperature (54°C)
Brand nameDettol Hand wash & soap

Formaldehyde solution: Physicochemical Properties

NameFormaldehyde solution: Antiseptics and Disinfectant
NomenclatureFormalin
Methanal
Formol
Methylene oxide
Chemical StructureFormaldehyde: Definition, Structure and Uses | Biology Dictionary
UsesPreservative
Antimicrobial
Physical propertiesColorless aqueous solutionPungent smell
Boiling point-  (-19) °C
Melting point- (-92) °C
Solubility-  soluble in water, ethanol and chloroform
Chemical propertiesMolecular formula – CH2O
Molecular weight – 30.026 g/mol  
Stability and storage conditionStore at room temperature or cool temperature
Flammable should be kept in air tightly sealed container and away from flame prone area
Dilute solution of formaldehyde can be stabled at 2 °C for one week  
Brand nameDettol Hand wash & soap

Hexachlorophene: Physicochemical Properties

NameHexachlorophene: Antiseptics and Disinfectant
Nomenclature2,2’-methylenebis(3,4,6-trichlorophenol)
Chemical StructureHexachlorophene - Wikipedia
UsesDisinfectantAntiseptic
Physical propertiesColorless free flowing powder
Slight characteristic phenolic odor
Boiling point-  479 °C
Melting point- 166.5 °C
Solubility-  Insoluble in water; soluble in chloroform, PEG
Chemical propertiesMolecular formula – C13H6Cl6O2
Molecular weight – 406.90 g/mol  
Stability and storage conditionStore at room temperature up to 25 °C
Stored in air tightly sealed container and away  
Brand namepHisoHex

Nitrofurantoin: Physicochemical Properties

NameNitrofurantoin: Antiseptics and Disinfectant
Nomenclature1-[(E)-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)methylideneamino]imidazolidine-2,4-dione
Chemical StructureThe chemical structure of nitrofurantoin. 
UsesDisinfectant
Antiseptic
Physical propertiesLemon yellow crystals
Bitter taste
Melting point- 263-272 °C
Solubility-  Insoluble in water and ether; slightly soluble in alcohol
Chemical propertiesMolecular formula – C8H6N4O5
Molecular weight –238.16 g/mol  
Stability and storage conditionStore at room temperature up to 30 °C
Stored in air tightly sealed container and away  
Brand nameTrifuran tabFuradantin tab

References:

  1. Proflavine
  2. Benzalkonium Chloride
  3. phenol
  4. cetrimide
  5. Chloroxylenol
  6. Formaldehyde
  7. Hexachlorophene
  8. Nitrofurantoin