Loperamide

Loperamide- Pharmacology and popular Brands

Diarrhea can be explained as a frequent, often precipitate passage of poorly formed stools. The WHO defines the condition as 3 or more loose or watery stools in a period of 24-hours. Pathologically, it can be explained as a condition where the excess passage of water occurs in the feces. This article highlights the uses of Loperamide for diarrhea.

Diarrhea can be a cause of 

  • Decreased electrolyte and water absorption
  • Increased secretion by the intestinal mucosa
  • Increased luminal osmotic load 
  • Inflammation of mucosa and exudation into the lumen.

The drugs used for such conditions are known as antidiarrheal drugs.

Drug profile- Loperamide

ParametersDetails
Category of DrugLoperamide is an Antidiarrhoeals and Laxatives drug
Mechanism of ActionLoperamide acts by slowing intestinal motility and by affecting water and electrolyte movement through the bowel. Loperamide inhibits peristaltic activity by a direct effect on the circular and longitudinal muscles of the intestinal wall.
Thumb
Molecular detailsMolecular Weight: 513.5 g/mol (1)
Chemical Formula- C29H33ClN2O2
IUPAC Name4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenylbutanamide;hydrochloride
IndicationsLoperamide is used for
1. For the control and symptomatic relief of acute nonspecific diarrhea and chronic diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel disease or gastroenteritis
2. for reducing the volume of discharge from ileostomies.
Well Known
Pharmaceutical Brands
1. ELDOPER- MICRO LABS
2. LOPAMIDE- TORRENT PHARMA
3. LOMOFEN +- RPG LIFE SCIENCES
4. RIDOL- GUFIC
5. IMODIUM- JANSSEN
Available dosage forms1. TABLET/CAPSULE
2. LIQUID
DoseAdult- 4 mg initially thereafter 2 mg after every motion.
Child- 2 mg followed by 2 mg after every motion
Contraindications1. Conditions where inhibition of peristalsis
should be avoided
2. Where abdominal distension develops
3. or in conditions such as active ulcerative colitis or antibiotic-associated colitis
Precautions1. Liver disease
2. Pregnancy
3. Interactions
4. Glaucoma
5. Crohn’s disease
6. Urinary bladder obstruction
Adverse Effects 1. Abdominal cramps
2. Dizziness
3. Drowsiness
4. Skin reactions
5. Paralytic ileus and abdominal bloating
6. Nausea
7. Vomiting
8. Constipation
9. Urinary retention
Pregnancy Category C

References:

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